Military

Planning Interrogations – Big Tows322

Part 1: Planning and Preparation

In part 1 of the human intelligence (HUMINT) collector operations, the operator must plan and prepare for a macro perspective on educing information from a source. General research is conducted about the source. The operator will need to be familiar with the source’s customs and culture, and the operator will also need to know how to effectively converse in the source’s language. The operator should know the history of the countries’ conflicts and why the source feels persecuted. Then accordingly, the operator will form a general educing information plan based on the macro research conducted on the source. In this brief essay, the researcher plans to give a brief overview of the source’s history, general research, and educing information guidelines.

According to the Army Field Manual, the first challenge to forming an educing information plan is to conduct general research on the source.1 In the scenario, the source is from Serbia and the Serbians represent a small minority in Kosovo of 6% of the population. In 2008, the US forces helped the Kosovo forces (KFOR) become an independent nation which Serbia did not recognize.2 The Serbians are not fond of the Albanians because of the historic genocide caused by the Albanians against the Serbians. The Serbians want to punish the US forces for helping the KFOR become independent via insurgent actions. Now that the operator has a general historical background of the situation, the operator may proceed to other general source research.

The operator has many avenues to explore general research. The operator should be familiar with prior HUMINT reports on the countries involved in the conflict. The operator will need to access reach components. The operator needs to access collaborative tools, Integrated Broadcast System (IBS), and the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications Systems (JWICS) to learn the latest unfettered database information available on country, threat groups, and or individual specific threats.3 After the general research is performed on the source then the operator needs to conduct a specific source research as detailed in part 2, recommended interrogation approaches and questions based on the source’s KUBARK profile, then an educing information plan may be formed.

An educing information plan must take into account a variety of actions. The plan should be in accordance with the law and Command’s authorizations.4 There are four critical pieces of every educing information plan: task organization, situation, mission, and execution. The task organization is educing information from a hostile source in the situation that could lead to intelligence to prevent an insurgent attack on allied forces. The mission is peacekeeping operations in Kosovo. And the execution depends on the operator’s skills in eliciting valuable intelligence to prevent a forecast attack.

Conclusion

In part 1 of the human intelligence (HUMINT) collector operations, the operator planned and prepared for a macro perspective on educing information from a source. General research was conducted about the source. The operator became familiar with the source’s customs and culture, and the operator knew how to effectively converse in the source’s language. The operator learned the history of the countries’ conflicts and why the source feels persecuted. Then accordingly, the operator formed a general educing information plan based on the macro research conducted on the source. In this brief essay, the researcher gave a brief overview of the source’s history, general research, and educing information guidelines.

Part 2: Recommended Interrogation Approaches and Questions

In part 2 of the scenario, the operator must learn the manipulation buttons to press in order for the source to elicit valuable intelligence. Social psychology is the deciding factor in eliciting valuable intelligence. Various psychological approaches are employed to elicit important information. The CIA’s KUBARK counterintelligence manual lists several personality traits and the interrogation approaches that will work with each. In this brief essay, the researcher plans to recommend interrogation approaches specific to the source’s psychological attributes to elicit critical intelligence.

Social psychology is the study of manipulating one’s behavior and attitudes to persuade the source to freely give up critical information. One of the primary goals of the operator in scenario 2 is to elicit intelligence to prevent an attack on US forces in Kosovo. The operator must then know how to successfully navigate the source’s psyche. The Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) KUBARK counterintelligence manual categorizes personality traits into several groups. Three KUBARK personality traits and the specific interrogation approaches for each will be applied to the specific source.5

The first KUBARK personality trait applied to the specific source was the orderly-obstinate character. The Serbian source acted against authority when the operator first entered the room. Then the source had heightened intensity when asked how the military police (MPs) were treating the source. According to the KUBARK manual, the first action in dealing with an orderly-obstinate character is to establish rapport and avoid threatening behavior at all costs.6 The best interrogation approach for the orderly-obstinate character would be the emotional hate approach because it focuses on the source’s holding a grudge and revenge desires.7 The source showed more than one personality trait during the first interpersonal conversation.

The second KUBARK personality trait the source appeared to show was the greedy, demanding character. The source made several demands during the first interrogation. The source also had veins bulging from the source’s head when asked friendly questions. The source then decided for fight time. Social psychological manipulation works best against the greedy, demanding type. The interrogation approach most suited for the greedy, demanding character is the incentive approach and the door-in-the-face technique of salesmanship. The door-in-the-face technique offers small rewards without big promises for producing important intelligence.

The third KUBARK personality trait that may be applied to the source is the exception personality trait. The Serbian source thinks the Serbian people were unjustly treated when the US forces helped Kosovo gain independence. The source claimed the US forces were in Kosovo illegally to treat the Serbians without justice. The source then joined a rebel, insurgency to combat the perceived threat. The third interrogation approach used against the source should be the emotional pride and ego-down approach because the exception has a false sense of loyalty to the cause and attacking the loyalty could elicit valuable intelligence.

Conclusion

In part 2 of the scenario, the operator learned the manipulation buttons to press in order for the source to elicit valuable intelligence. Interpersonal social psychology, the psychology of manipulation, was the deciding factor in eliciting valuable intelligence. Various psychological approaches were employed to elicit important information. The CIA’s KUBARK counterintelligence manual listed several personality traits and the interrogation approaches that worked with each. In this brief essay, the researcher recommended interrogation approaches specific to the source’s psychological attributes to elicit critical intelligence.

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Bibliography notes

1

Field Manual 2–22.3, Human Intelligence Collector Operations. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 6 Sep 2006. Accessed 10 Sep 2019, https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm2-22-3.pdf

2

Zaragovia, Veronica, & Valerie Plesh. “There is one place where Serbs and Albanians coexist in Kosovo — in the country’s version of Costco.” Pri.org. 5 Mar 2018. Accessed 10 Sep 2019, https://www.pri.org/stories/2018-03-05/there-one-place-where-serbs-and-albanians-coexist-kosovo-countrys-version-costco

3

Field Manual 2–22.3, Human Intelligence Collector Operations. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 6 Sep 2006. Accessed 10 Sep 2019, https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm2-22-3.pdf

4

Intelligence Science Board. “Educing Information Interrogation: Science and Art.” National Defense Intelligence College, 2006. Accessed 10 Sep 2019, http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/OathBetrayed/Intelligence%20Science%20Board%202006.pdf

5

Central Intelligence Agency. KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation. Washington, DC: CIA, 1963. Accessed 10 Sep, 2019, http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB122/index.htm#kubark

6

Ibid

7

Field Manual 2–22.3, Human Intelligence Collector Operations. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 6 Sep 2006. Accessed 10 Sep 2019, https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm2-22-3.pdf

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